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Kozier, Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing (2004) A recent study at New York’s Cornell University examined how political party and candidate affiliation in Massachusetts was associated with cancer risks and mortality. The data, taken from the Massachusetts cancer registry between the years 1973-2013, was broken into two parts, one from 1973-1990 and another from 1991-2013. On the whole, the authors found that both men and women, who have a direct connection to political parties and candidates, tended to have a higher risk of cancer, though not necessarily mortality. However, they found a difference in cancer mortality between the two different time periods: …[T]he cancer-specific mortality risk was significantly higher in the late (post-1991) period compared to the early (pre-1991) period (HR’s: 2.9 and 1.6, respectively)… During the late period, men with no direct connection to a political party or candidate (i.e., independent) were found to have the lowest mortality risk (HR’s: 0.8 and 0.8, respectively) compared with the early period. Those who have a direct connection to political parties and candidates also tend to have a higher level of education. Interestingly, this study notes that …[C]andidate-related cases in the late period had the highest percentage of college education (42%), compared to only 12% in the early period. During the early period, the authors mention that voter affiliation and party affiliation seem to have different effects on cancer risk. …[P]arty affiliation was associated with a higher cancer risk only in the late period… Voter affiliation, on the other hand, was associated with a higher cancer risk in both periods. The authors used state-level data, which is available to the public. They were able to use this information to analyze how voter affiliation and party affiliation were connected to cancer risk, even for those who did not directly support or oppose the party. A separate study released last week looked at the connection between American politics and cancer incidence in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The authors found that: Some of the political and public institutions important for voter participation in elections – such as education and healthcare – are also important for cancer control, particularly for men, as well as for cancer incidence. The authors found that increases in …registration, turnout, and participation of Democrats were associated





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